VOA英语学习网 > 科学美国人 > 2019年科学美国人 > 科学美国人60秒科学系列 >
缩小放大

科学美国人60秒:盲人大脑适应模式相似

[提示:]双击单词,即可查看词义!如果生词较多,请先学习:VOA慢速英语1500基础词汇
中英对照 听力原文

Brains of Blind People Adapt in Similar Fashion

盲人大脑适应模式相似

The human brain is remarkably adaptable, constantly being shaped by life experience. A striking example is that in blind people, the brain’s visual cortex is repurposed for auditory tasks—such as detecting motion and pinpointing where a sound is coming from. But its adopted functions could be even more complex.

人类的大脑具有很强的适应能力,不断受到生活经验的影响。一个显著的例子是,在盲人中,大脑的视觉皮层被重新用于听觉任务——比如检测运动和确定声音的来源。但它的功能可能更复杂。

“And the question is, well: How much can this part of the brain change its function in people who were born blind?”

“问题是:先天失明的人,大脑这一部分的功能改变了多少呢?”

Johns Hopkins cognitive neuroscientist Marina Bedny. She and her team had blind and sighted volunteers listen to audio clips from entertaining movies while undergoing functional MRI scans of their brains. The goal was to find out if, among blind people, the visual cortex is activated consistently for complex auditory tasks.

约翰霍普金斯大学的认知神经学家玛丽娜·贝德尼说。她和她的团队让失明和有视力的志愿者听娱乐电影的音频剪辑,同时对他们的大脑进行功能性核磁共振扫描。研究的目的是找出盲人的视觉皮层在处理复杂的听觉任务时是否一直处于激活状态。

“So we take brain activity in one person, and we correlate it to brain activity in another person. It gives you a way to directly compare how similar the processing of two brains is when they’re listening to a given stimulus. And so that can tell us, for example, whether the visual cortices of different blind people are doing the same thing at the same time.”

“所以我们把一个人的大脑活动与另一个人的大脑活动联系起来。这样就可以直接比较两个大脑在听到给定刺激时的信息处理的相似度。例如,可以告诉我们,不同盲人的视觉皮质是否在同一时间做同一件事。”

The result?

结果是?

“You get massive synchrony over something like 65 percent of the occipital lobe, which is a lot of cortical territory.”

“你会在大约65%的枕叶上得到大规模的同步,而这是大量的皮质区域。”

In other words, in blind participants, most areas of the visual cortex were activated at the same time by the movie audio.

换句话说,在盲人中,视觉皮层的大部分区域同时被电影音频激活。

But the visual cortices of sighted people didn’t show consistent activation. What’s more, the similarities became much less pronounced among the blind participants when the movie clips were scrambled and became meaningless. That finding suggests the visual cortex isn’t just acting like a simple sound processor.

但是正常人的视觉皮质并没有表现出与实验一致的激活程度。更重要的是,当电影片段被打乱并变得毫无意义时,激活的相似度在盲人参与者中变得不那么明显了。这一发现表明,视觉皮层不仅仅是一个简单的声音处理器。

“And that’s important because it means that this brain region likely went from being a low-level sensory area to behaving like a higher cognitive area, which suggests a very extreme level of reorganization and plasticity.”

“这很重要,因为这意味着这个大脑区域很可能从一个低级的感觉区域变成了一个高级的认知区域,这意味着极端的重组和可塑性。”

The study appears in the Journal of Neuroscience.

该研究结果发表在《神经科学》杂志上。

Further research will investigate other ways in which life experiences may profoundly shape cognitive function, from reading braille to programming computers.

进一步的研究将探索生活经验, 如阅读盲文到编程计算机可能深刻影响认知功能的其他方式。

Brains of Blind People Adapt in Similar Fashion

The human brain is remarkably adaptable, constantly being shaped by life experience. A striking example is that in blind people, the brain’s visual cortex is repurposed for auditory tasks—such as detecting motion and pinpointing where a sound is coming from. But its adopted functions could be even more complex.

“And the question is, well: How much can this part of the brain change its function in people who were born blind?”

Johns Hopkins cognitive neuroscientist Marina Bedny. She and her team had blind and sighted volunteers listen to audio clips from entertaining movies while undergoing functional MRI scans of their brains. The goal was to find out if, among blind people, the visual cortex is activated consistently for complex auditory tasks.

“So we take brain activity in one person, and we correlate it to brain activity in another person. It gives you a way to directly compare how similar the processing of two brains is when they’re listening to a given stimulus. And so that can tell us, for example, whether the visual cortices of different blind people are doing the same thing at the same time.”

The result?

“You get massive synchrony over something like 65 percent of the occipital lobe, which is a lot of cortical territory.”

In other words, in blind participants, most areas of the visual cortex were activated at the same time by the movie audio.

But the visual cortices of sighted people didn’t show consistent activation. What’s more, the similarities became much less pronounced among the blind participants when the movie clips were scrambled and became meaningless. That finding suggests the visual cortex isn’t just acting like a simple sound processor.

“And that’s important because it means that this brain region likely went from being a low-level sensory area to behaving like a higher cognitive area, which suggests a very extreme level of reorganization and plasticity.”

The study appears in the Journal of Neuroscience. Further research will investigate other ways in which life experiences may profoundly shape cognitive function, from reading braille to programming computers.


内容来自 新濠天地VOA英语学习网新濠天地/www3ed6chinavoa3ed6com/show-8762-241836-1.html
Related Articles
内容推荐
奇特“食肉”细菌会抑制免疫系统 还会劫持你的痛觉 转型!糙汉板王开始苦练三分 每天至少进200个 大师赛威尔逊为90后夺首胜 下轮要让金左手停步 菲总统府:中菲将在礼乐滩合作开发油气资源 杜兰特狂轰41分不如汤大腿发疯一节,然后睡觉 海南大学教授王毅武:预计海南房子很快会只租不售 多米尼加女排主教练:希望球队入围总决赛 挫败政府征税法案 印度“卫生巾战役”赢得不易 商业模式拷问区块链:数字资产向左 技术方案向右 力拒连败马林调整战术 冯特表现将决定一方防线 舒斯特尔:U23配得上出场 红牌导致失去赢球可能 阿富汗塔利班袭击西部省份 至少20名警察身亡
险遭罚!阿奇姆彭赛后沮丧躺倒 差点忘和裁判握手 本田精英赛李斯特领先冲冠 伍兹交六字头升至T11 吴金贵:德比会继续采用轮换 申花目前重心在亚冠 皇马欧冠稳赢?战尤文暗藏危机 中卫只剩1个能上 天价咖啡:俄罗斯女子误把4位数密码当小费支付 渤海海峡黄海北部有军事任务 5月18日至25日禁航 美国二季度GDP增长4.1% 不及预期 蚂蚁金服与开饭喇达成战略合作 将持股20%成少数股东 进球gif-郑达伦强行突破造良机 莫德斯特笑纳大礼 神似!两代大核6年对比堪称轮回 只盼这1点不同 马丁斯凌晨离沪赴伦敦疗伤 孙世林及球迷机场送别 阿联的快问快答!男篮一哥的内心世界竟是这样
俄媒:美军RC-135侦察机抵近克里米亚沿岸飞行 美铁铝制品加关税针对中国?英媒:直接冲击美盟友 中超-阿奇姆彭戴帽+绝杀 泰达3-2胜权健笑傲德比 鲁媒提出疑问:队友还能否无条件信任劳森? 广厦返杭获球迷热情迎接 李春江:明年再来! 最后一家电子市场拆除 中关村告别电子批发卖场时代 33岁C罗身体却只有20岁!三大逆天数据惊呆你 朝鲜玄松月率领先遣队取消明日访韩计划 原因不明 丰田携手零部件供应商 投3000亿建智能化软件新公司 服装批发5元到15元 亩收益10万的种植品种 学校里开什么店好 身无分文怎样白手起家 新濠天地