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男性在工作中夸大自己的表现,而女性则低估自己的表现

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2019年10月11日

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Men exaggerate their performance at work while women underplay theirs: study

研究发现:男性在工作中夸大自己的表现,而女性则低估自己的表现

A new study from researchers from Harvard Business School and the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania sought to determine whether men or women were more likely to assess their own work positively.

来自哈佛商学院和宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿商学院的研究人员,在一项新研究中试图确定男性或女性是否更有可能对自己的工作做出积极的评价。

Despite the fact that men and women performed just as well as each other on the test, women on average reported their performance as being 15 points lower on the 100-point scale than the average man.

尽管事实上男女在测试中表现不相上下,但女性在100分满分的情况下平均成绩比男性低15分。

“When communicating to potential employers, women systematically provide less favorable assessments of their own past performance and potential future ability than equally performing men,” the researchers wrote in the working paper distributed by the National Bureau of Economic Research.

研究人员在国家经济研究局(National Bureau of Economic Research)发布的工作文件中写道:“在与潜在雇主沟通时,与表现相同的男性相比,女性对自己过去的表现和潜在未来能力的评估系统性地较差。”

男性在工作中夸大自己的表现,而女性则低估自己的表现

The researchers conducted an experiment where 900 workers were asked to take a 20-question test from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, an exam used to determine whether someone is qualified to enlist in the US Armed Forces.

研究人员进行了一项实验,其中900名工人被要求参加一项由20个问题组成的测试,测试内容来自美国陆军部职业能力倾向测试,这是一项用来决定某人是否有资格加入美国武装部队的测试。

Afterwards, the participants were asked to estimate how many questions they believe they answered correctly on the test and to rate their overall performance in different ways, including on a scale from 0 to 100 where a 100 indicated that they fully believed they did well on the test.

之后,参与者被要求评估他们认为自己在测试中正确回答了多少问题,并以不同的方式对他们的整体表现进行评分,包括从0到100分,其中100分表示他们完全相信自己在测试中表现良好。

The researchers ruled out various possible explanations for why women were less inclined toward self-promotion. Even after some of the participants were told how well they scored on the test and how that compared to others’ scores, they still assessed themselves more poorly than men.

研究人员排除了各种可能的解释,解释为什么女性不太倾向于自我提升。即使在一些参与者被告知他们在考试中的得分有多高,以及与其他人的得分相比,他们对自己的评价仍然比男性差。

This, the working paper’s authors said, indicated that a gap in confidence alone did not explain the gap in self-promotion.

这份工作报告的作者说,这表明,仅仅信心上的差距并不能解释自我推销上的差距。

Other additional tests the researchers performed also ruled out the possibility that men were more inclined to inflate a self-assessment because of incentives such as higher pay. Women were still more likely to rate themselves more poorly regardless of whether or not a potential employer was going to see their test results or their self-assessment.

研究人员进行的其他附加测试也排除了一种可能性,即男性更倾向于夸大自我评估,因为他们受到了加薪等激励。无论潜在雇主是否会看到她们的测试结果或自我评估,女性仍然更有可能给自己打低分。

男性在工作中夸大自己的表现,而女性则低估自己的表现

Among the remaining possible explanations, the researchers said that their findings could suggest that women believe that self-promotion is an inappropriate way to behave and/or that they are afraid of the possibility of backlash over being boastful about one’s abilities.

在剩下的可能解释中,研究人员表示,他们的发现可能表明,女性认为自我推销是一种不恰当的行为方式,或者她们害怕因为吹嘘自己的能力而遭到反对。

At the same time, they also pointed to other research that showed that men are inclined to inflate their performance estimates, but that employers don’t always take this into account.

同时,他们还指出,其他研究显示,男性倾向于夸大自己的业绩预期,但雇主并不总是考虑到这一点。

Regardless of the reasoning behind the gender gap in self-promotion, the researchers noted that it could have serious ripple effects in women’s careers.

不管自我推销中性别差距背后的原因是什么,研究人员指出,这可能会对女性的职业生涯产生严重的连锁反应。

As they note, people are often asked to rate their skills when applying to schools, interviewing for jobs or during performance reviews. As a result, they argue that many women’s disinclination to assess themselves more favorably could play into other gender gaps, such as those around education and salary.

正如他们所注意到的,人们经常被要求在申请学校、面试工作或绩效评估时对自己的技能进行评估。因此,他们认为,许多女性不愿对自己进行更有利的评估,这可能会导致其他性别差距,例如教育和工资方面的差距。


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